1 million H1B is understated. Roughly 60-70% of their spouses can work freely in the US. The H1B is contracted at X amount while their spouse is able to enter the workforce for free market value.
So, you have a husband who is a programmer working for $50 an hour, the wife is able to make more than him because she got a job the pays normal rates. Basically that’s $100+ per hour that Americans are loosing.
Also, consider this, these jobs that spouses do can easily filled by Americans and these jobs lead to management positions.
Companies like TCS (India’s Tata) will focus on hiring programmers because they fear dumping charges. Yet, when you ask them about manager positions they basically say they don’t have any. Of course not! They filled them with Indian Nationals.
Another trick is that recruiting companies are largely based off shore with branches set up in the US for appearance sakes. They also act as huge out sourcing operations.
TCS has a huge campus the size of google in India which was more than likely built with profits made in the US.